How bonds work

There are a few different types of bonds, but experts note they all work in a similar fashion — the business, government agency or local government that needs money issues a batch of bonds.

The issuer sets a term and interest rate for the loan. Once the term or maturity date is reached, the lender gets their investment returned to them along with the interest that money has earned.

How much extra money bondholders will receive depends on the interest, or coupon, rate. The longer a bond’s term, the higher the coupon rate will typically be.

Buying bonds is pretty straightforward. You can either purchase a specific bond or a bond fund (composed of multiple, and sometimes dozens of different bonds) through a brokerage account, on an investing platform or directly from the issuing government agency or corporation.

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The different types of bonds

There are eight different types of bonds:

  • Corporate
  • Municipal (less frequently issued in Canada but those that are offered tend to provide high yields)
  • Canadian Treasury (government)
  • Agency
  • Convertible
  • Foreign
  • Junk
  • Non-conventional

All eight types of bonds give individual investors an opportunity to take the place of a large lender and provide an organization with the money it needs. In the case of municipal bonds, the cash generated by the bonds is often needed to repair roads, build schools or fund other infrastructure.

The government has similar motivations for issuing Treasury bonds, but on a larger, federal level. Agency bonds fund specific government arms, like Health Canada or the Canada Revenue Agency.

As for corporate bonds, companies rely on these loans to fund large growth initiatives like buying new equipment or properties, for research and development or to increase their workforces.

Convertible bonds, experts note, are a type of corporate bond that holders can exchange for shares of the issuing company.

Junk, or high-yield bonds, are another type of corporate bond. They’re riskier than more traditional bonds but can offer solid returns. That’s because these bonds are issued by corporations that have lower credit ratings from investment services — and that risk can translate into an investor’s reward.

Some of these types of bonds are specific to Canada. If you want to invest in an international company or government, that’s where foreign bonds come in. But foreign entities do issue bonds in the Canadian market — and in Canadian dollars.

Finally, non-conventional bonds, which are fairly uncommon, don’t come with fixed interest rates and maturity dates. Borrowers don’t pay interest every year, instead opting to present it to lenders in a lump sum once the bond reaches maturity.

Fine art as an investment

Stocks can be volatile, cryptos make big swings to either side, and even gold is not immune to the market’s ups and downs.

That’s why if you are looking for the ultimate hedge, it could be worthwhile to check out a real, but overlooked asset: fine art.

Contemporary artwork has outperformed the S&P 500 by a commanding 174% over the past 25 years, according to the Citi Global Art Market chart.

And it’s becoming a popular way to diversify because it’s a real physical asset with little correlation to the stock market.

On a scale of -1 to +1, with 0 representing no link at all, Citi found the correlation between contemporary art and the S&P 500 was just 0.12 during the past 25 years.

Earlier this year, Bank of America investment chief Michael Harnett singled out artwork as a sharp way to outperform over the next decade — due largely to the asset’s track record as an inflation hedge.

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About the Author

Sigrid Forberg

Sigrid Forberg


Sigrid is a reporter with MoneyWise. Before joining the team, she worked for a B2B publication in the hardware and home improvement industry and ran an internal employee magazine for the federal government. As a graduate of the Carleton University Journalism program, she takes pride in telling informative, engaging and compelling stories.

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